International classification of the cargo
Freight and transportation are classified by industry basis, and the elements characterizing the conditions of carriage. The first way is to group the freight on such basic types: Industry, construction, agriculture, commerce, communal services, postage and other transportation . The structure of the total volume of international freight transport by road is roughly as follows,%: industry - 35; construction - 33; agriculture - 23; trade - 5, other industries - 4.
All variety of traffic is grouped in eleven sections :
- Agricultural cargo.
- Cargo of timber, woodworking and pulp and paper production
- Metal ores
- Production of fuel and energy industry.
- Mineral raw materials, mineral construction materials and abrasives.
- Cargo of steel industry
- Cargo of metal and engineering industry
- Products of the chemical production.
- Cargo food, meat, dairy and fish industry
- Cargo of light and printing industry.
- Other cargo .
The first five chapters of this nomenclature are formed mainly on the basis of origin of goods goods of vegetable and animal origin (I and II parts ) and mining goods of production (III, IV and V parts ). The next five chapters nomenclature of cargoes are products of manufacturing industry.
Grouping of the international Goods by industry based characteristics allows to solve successfully some problems in the organization of cargo transportation. However, this classification does not reflect the relationship between transport modes and methods of organizing the transport process. For transportation of goods of different branches of industry can be used by the same means of transport and methods of transportation , choice of which is determined by technological requirements. Therefore, for the rational organization of the transport process, the classification of transportation only on a sectoral basis is not enough: it is necessary to differentiate goods by individual characteristics, determining the characteristics of their transport and storage.
Freight differ in physical properties, packaging, tonnage and dimensions. Depending on the physical properties goods are divided into : bulk cargo, boxes, packaged, and container, as well as liquid and gaseous, oversized goods and large mass goods. For transportation of liquid or gaseous goods without packaging are used special trailers ( tanker trucks , gas carrier )
Piece goods transported in containers with or without. In addition, they are classified in terms of tonnage and dimensions. Depending on the weight and size of one package are distinguished such goods like : ordinary, heavy, oversized cargo (for the carriage of which require special vehicles - semi-trailers or heavy-duty, trawls ) and small-pieces .
Small-pieces goods are a set of objects that can be easily separated from each other, but are not allowed to be bulk loaded. Most of their share - are products of light industry, food, chemical and other industries. These include some building materials - bricks, tiles, certain types of machinery, metallurgy (For example, shaped ingots). For reduction of the complexity of handling during the transport of goods, small-pieces should be combined into larger units by weight, applying for the containers and packaging. To reduce the complexity of handling during transportation we need to combine small-pieces goods into larger units by weight, applying for the containers and packaging.
Depending on the dimension sizes there are dimensional, large-sized and oversized goods. Marker called cargo during transportation of which are not exceeded dimensional limit on public roads: the width of 2.5 m,, along with height of the car 3.7 m (containers 4 m), the length of the outside of the tailgate 2 m. Large-sized cargoes are building materials include with the size of a space of more than 2.5 meters in height, 2 m in width and 3 m in length. Oversized goods considered to be, goods during transportation of which dimensions of vehicles (including goods) deviate from the established limit. According to the road traffic regulations, to the international transportation of oversized loads and loads of large tonnage trucks are subject to additional requirements.
Depending on the conditions of carriage and storage there are perishable produce goods (mostly foodstuffs), and unsanitary.
Under the terms of protection from external influences there are goods: that require protection from precipitation, temperature effects, knocks and bumps, and requiring the fulfillment of specific conditions of loading and unloading .
The marking of goods for transportation
Currently, in the world there is great demand for transportation services of goods in international traffic. Often accompanied by delivery of the provision of services on customs registration of goods, their insurance, packing, etc. At this same time considerable attention is paid to proper packing and labeling of transported goods. First of all, the marking of cargo - a guarantee of delivery of the goods safe and intact, thanks to it warehouse worker will be aware of how to handle the packed product, what will reduce the risk of damage of cargo. Depending on the nature of transported cargo, different information signs may be applied on package : tags, labels, stickers in order to describe the goods that will be sent .
In Ukraine, marking of goods is regulated in accordance with GOST 14192-96 " The marking cargo ". This Standard does not apply to the labeling of packaging of dangerous (ADR), which require temperature control cargo and bulk cargo .
There are consignor, commodity, special and transport labeling. The consignor does special, consignor, commodity, special labeling, and transport-company does transport labeling . Product labeling of cargo informs the manufacturer about goods, its name, date, model. Consignor's mark applied by the shipper shows receiver and sender of the goods, points of loading and unloading the body-weight characteristics of the goods After correctly made consignor's transport labeling transport labeling is done which contains number of places, the sequence number. Special markings - are all possible warning signs about the way of cargo handling, regulations for the transport, storage, loading and unloading work.
The marking of plastics packaging occurs on press forms , wooden - burning or staining (usually with the help of stencils), Cardboard - printing method , metal - by extruding or stencil painting. Information on package will be added in such way that it will be clear to understand and won’t lose its view during all transportation process. There are also recommended areas of the location of information signs and sizes of text fonts. The marking are applied by special vehicles, and can also be glued, sewed or be in the form tag.
Dangerous Goods Regulations
Vehicle for the carriage of dangerous goods must be ordered in advance (usually within 2-3 working days from the expected date of transportation ) ;
For the carriage of dangerous goods need to prepare emergency cards, which are prepared on the basis of passports of material, and route sheets, where routes for transportation of dangerous goods are shown . The driver must strictly adhere to the routes specified in the route sheets.
You need to prepare supporting documents for dangerous goods : certificates, passports of material, ТТН, Invoices. As a rule, for registration and coordination of route for transportation of dangerous goods it is needed 3-5 days;
During transportation of dangerous goods speed limits must be complied , so the high-speed transport of ADR goods are not allowed;
Some groups of dangerous goods are permitted for joint transportation.
During loading and unloading when transporting dangerous goods, the driver is a responsible person, therefore he has the right not to accept the ADR cargo for transportation in case if supporting documentation are formed incorrectly or with errors, regulations for the transport of dangerous goods are not met, and container is damaged or deformed.
Types of ships for transportation of cargoes
Nowadays, there are transported large volumes of cargo between Europe and Asia, so their services are provided through maritime transport. Maritime transport of goods is less expensive than delivering by means of road, rail and air transport . By sea is transported various goods - oil, grain, gas, animals, equipment, construction and agricultural. technique. For the carriage of each of these there are various types of cargo ships. In accordance with the classification of goods, there are the following transport ships: highly specialized (delivery of a specific type of cargo), specialized (delivery of two or more kinds of goods one category), the court Dual specialization (transportation of goods in different categories), multi-purpose (transport of goods in different categories, with the possibility of overload the horizontal and vertical way) and universal (transportation of any goods). The main feature of the classification of ships is their destiny. All civilian vessels are divided into :
- Passenger Ships
- Liquid cargo (tanker, gas carrier)
- Dry cargo
- Vessels of general purpose
- Specialized (timber, container, ro-ro, bulk carrier, reefer)
- Cargo and passenger vessel
- Vessels of technical fleet
In addition to the above classifications, there are many others that are based on the area of operation of ships, the class of motor and load capacity.
Dry cargo vessels of general purpose are the most common type and are designed to deliver general cargo, as well as large and bulky. They are equipped with cranes and booms for loading and unloading. Goods may be packed in different ways - in boxes, in bales, in barrels, etc. Dry cargo (dry cargo ships) have two decks and bulk cargo holds, which occupy the main part of the body. As loading technique are used cranes with lifting capacity to 200 tons. As a rule, modern ships of this type there is a refrigerated cargo hold, designed for transportation of cargoes to a specific temperature regime.
Specialized dry cargo ships transport homogeneous goods and are called according to the type of cargo - timber, container, reefer, animal transports, ro-ro, bulk carriers.
Marine reefer vessels used for transportation of products (vegetables, meat, fruit). Their load capacity reaches 8-12 thousand tons. Cargo holds of these ships are equipped with refrigerators and have good thermal insulation. Depending on customer requirements in the holds can be maintained at a temperature of 6 ° C and -20.
Some marine reefer vessels have a very powerful cooling systems that are able not only to maintain the desired temperature, but also to carry out rapid freezing of goods (industrial and transportation sea reefer vessels. Some ships are designed for transportation of fruits and vegetables they have increased ventilation of cargo holds.
Container ships (container transporter) is designed for the transportation of goods packed in a standard ISO container. The length of a container ship ranges from 80 to 400 m, capacity - 8 - 20 000 tons , capacity - 250 - 18 thousand containers. Such vessels can be automatized in such way that the quantity of crew may be only 10-14 people.
Hold of marine container is equipped with vertical guides, which facilitate the loading of shipping containers (containers are placed one upon the other), and exclude their displacement during rolling of the ship. After loading of the containers in the holds, their are loaded onto the deck, where they are fastened by special adaptations: rods, chains, turnbuckles.
Loading and unloading operations in dry cargo vessels are ten times faster than of general purpose, as in the holds are loaded standard shipping containers , rather than piece goods - various size and tonnage. Unloading of this type of vessel is done with the use of port lifting equipment - gantry cranes with lifting capacity to 25 tons .
A variety of container vessels are lighter carrier - vessels for the transportation of floating barges. These barges with carrying capacity of 370-2000 tons unloaded from lighters on the water, then towed to the required berth. Lighters are used in places where large ships do not go for some reason.
Ro-ro (trailer vessels, the ship ro-ro) type of cargo transportation vessels, with the possibility of horizontal loading of vehicles on the wheelbase, through the stern flap - trucks and cars, w / wagons, etc. Vehicles are loaded on a ship by driving them onto the board or by using terminal tractors lifting capacity up to 30 tons . Carrying capacity of such vessels - 1 - 10 thousand tons. The main advantage of ro-ro is high speed of loading / unloading. The body of ro-ro is loaded with rolling equipment, and the deck is used for sea transportation of 20 - and 40 - foot containers. Ro-ro is essentially the ferry, but it is freight ferry .
Bulk carrier - is the type of vessel for the carriage of bulk cargoes without the packaging used to transport coal, building materials, grain, sand, gravel, ores. Bulk carriers, this are single-deck vessels, they are different from other large vessels with carrying capacity of (about 150 000 tonnes) and a low rate of speed. The holds of bulk carriers have sloping walls (lower and upper) for self-allocation of bulk cargo . Most of these vessels do not have loading facilities, they are loaded by using of port loading technique. Some bulk carriers are equipped with conveyor belts, which are unloaded from the cargo hold, so-called self-unloading vessels.
Timber lorries - are used to deliver the wood (round logs), and lumber, as a rule have single-deck. Marine timber strengthened by ice reinforcements that allow you to enter the ports of the Arctic Basin.
The tanker is the most common form of transport vessels used to transport petroleum and other liquid cargoes. Tanker , is single-deck vessel, its capacity reaches 400,000 tons. The upper deck of the ship is equipped with a set of pipes through which the loading and unloading of cargo is done . Loading share of such vessels are divided into transverse and longitudinal bulkheads in the cargo tanks (compartments) that are filled with liquid bulk cargo. The tanker has a pump room, which control the unloading of bulk cargo . Such vessels are equipped with double bottom and double sides - to prevent the entry of goods into the environment. Some vessels of this type can simultaneously carry up to five types of liquid cargo. Unloading of tankers is far from projecting - piers the speakers from which are going oil pipelines to shore.
Gas carriers carried out carriage of various gases (propane, methane, ammonia), which are transported in a liquefied state . Sea gas carriers have removable tanks cylindrical, rectangular and spherical. For example, gas carrier for delivery of methane, which is transported at temperatures down to -160 ° C, have a rectangular tank. Sea gas carriers equipped with pumps, pipeline system , compressors - to perform unloading.
There are passenger, road-rail, railway, automobile and passenger and traffic Sea ferries that connect land highways. They are designed to carry w / wagons, trucks and passengers. Their capacity ranges from 300 to 60 000 tonnes . For the arrival of technique on the marine steam are used stern and bow ramps and side latsporty . The ferry can have multiple decks, wheel vehicle moves over them by using lifts or ramps . On ferries There are passenger facilities, bars, restaurants, entertainment centers for passengers. On average, car-passenger ferry can transport vehicles up to 150-200, 900-1,000 of passengers, and Amtrak - up to 50 g / d of cars. For unloading of cars from the ferry is used pass-through system, check-in and check-out wheeled vehicles through different gates.
The tug, pusher - it is a vehicle for self-propelled and self-propelled vessels. Pushers, in contrast to the tugs, are set in motion by the self-propelled vessels.
A special type of transportation vessels are sea animal-transporters . Such vessels are «Stella Deneb», «Becrux» . Becrux can carry by one time of about 16 000 head of cattle, Stella Deneb - 22 000 heads. Becrux has nine decks for cattle, «Stella Deneb» - six. Delivery of cattle on a ship happens by using animal transport trucks, or trains. Sea-going vessels for the cattle transport equipped with powerful ventilation system consisting of a few dozen ventilators. Pet food is in a special store that has bins. The function of the bunkers is to deliver food on the deck of the vessel . From each hopper food is served to the set of pipelines which delivered to its "consumer".
In the case of loss of cattle it is thrown overboard - where the it will become target for sea fish predators.